I cannot and will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand, I can do no other, so help me God. Amen.
A thousand years after the time of Augustine, the Christian world faced a different challenge. The church was now fully part of the establishment — indeed it was the dominant organization in Europe, but it had it had become corrupt and money-grubbing. In response to this situation, reformers such as Martin Luther initiated a Reformation — a back to basics movement. They said that the priesthood had failed the people that they were supposed to be leading, so we should have a ‘Priesthood of All Believers’. Moreover, we should base our faith on scripture — sola scriptura, and that we are justified by faith — sola fide — not by good works. Priests are no longer needed.